All Digital Artifacts

All Digital Artifacts

Artifacts: The Great Depression

Ax

Chopping firewood was hard work, and it took a sharp ax to get the job done. It was important to have enough firewood for the long Minnesota winter. For some families, their only source of heat was the fireplace. Every summer, someone had to chop enough wood for the whole year.

Ax

Chopping firewood was hard work, and it took a sharp ax to get the job done. It was important to have enough firewood for the long Minnesota winter. For some families, their only source of heat was the fireplace. Every summer, someone had to chop enough wood for the whole year.

Boy Scout Rifle

Some people hunted for squirrels and rabbits during the Depression. That's because they couldn’t afford to buy meat. This was especially common among people who lived in the countryside. A Boy Scout rifle like this one is good for hunting small game.

Boy Scout Rifle

Some people hunted for squirrels and rabbits during the Depression. That's because they couldn’t afford to buy meat. This was especially common among people who lived in the countryside. A Boy Scout rifle like this one is good for hunting small game.

Crystal Radio

This radio didn't need electricity to tune in local stations. It was powered by radio waves. It was common for magazines to print instructions on how to build your own. However, the signal on crystal radios was usually weak and kind of hard to hear.

Crystal Radio

This radio didn't need electricity to tune in local stations. It was powered by radio waves. It was common for magazines to print instructions on how to build your own. However, the signal on crystal radios was usually weak and kind of hard to hear.

Footlocker

When young men joined the Civilian Conservation Corps, they moved to a camp. In CCC camps, they worked on building roads, bridges, and protecting the Minnesota wilderness. Footlockers gave them a place to keep their clothes in camp. It was called a footlocker because it was a locker that was kept at the foot of the bed.

Footlocker

When young men joined the Civilian Conservation Corps, they moved to a camp. In CCC camps, they worked on building roads, bridges, and protecting the Minnesota wilderness. Footlockers gave them a place to keep their clothes in camp. It was called a footlocker because it was a locker that was kept at the foot of the bed.

Milk Pail

Milk was really important for kids' health during the Great Depression. Milking cows was usually the kid's job on the farm. Everyone had to work to help the family survive. Some families could have starved during the Great Depression if they didn't grow their own food.

Milk Pail

Milk was really important for kids' health during the Great Depression. Milking cows was usually the kid's job on the farm. Everyone had to work to help the family survive. Some families could have starved during the Great Depression if they didn't grow their own food.

Oil Lamp

What if you didn't have electricity at your house? While most people in the city had electric lights, many people in the country didn't. They used oil lamps instead. The light from oil lamps is brighter than a candle but not as bright as electric lights.

Oil Lamp

What if you didn't have electricity at your house? While most people in the city had electric lights, many people in the country didn't. They used oil lamps instead. The light from oil lamps is brighter than a candle but not as bright as electric lights.

Paper Doll

In the 1930s, paper dolls were popular because they were cheap to make. Little girls found dresses in magazines or could draw their own dresses for their dolls. But paper dolls were also easier to wreck. Kids needed to make sure their dolls didn't get wet or torn.

Paper Doll

In the 1930s, paper dolls were popular because they were cheap to make. Little girls found dresses in magazines or could draw their own dresses for their dolls. But paper dolls were also easier to wreck. Kids needed to make sure their dolls didn't get wet or torn.

Wagon

Wagons were popular toys in the 1930s. Kids rode around in them like a toy car, using the handle like a steering wheel and coasting down hills. Kids and parents also used wagons for carrying things around. This was helpful when they needed to walk to the grocery store.

Wagon

Wagons were popular toys in the 1930s. Kids rode around in them like a toy car, using the handle like a steering wheel and coasting down hills. Kids and parents also used wagons for carrying things around. This was helpful when they needed to walk to the grocery store.

 

Artifacts: World War II

Armored Truck M8

The M8 was like a regular truck, but it had metal armor to protect it. Soldiers used it to gather information needed for planning attacks. The big turret on the top is a machine gun. It was used to protect the soldiers inside the truck.

Armored Truck M8

The M8 was like a regular truck, but it had metal armor to protect it. Soldiers used it to gather information needed for planning attacks. The big turret on the top is a machine gun. It was used to protect the soldiers inside the truck.

Ammo

Ammo is short for ammunition, which means bullets. The Twin Cities Ordnance Plant (TCOP) made ammo of all kinds. They sent it to the soldiers fighting in Europe and Asia. Many women worked in ammunition plants like TCOP. They thought making bullets for soldiers was a good way to help their sons, husbands, and fathers who had gone off to war.

Ammo

Ammo is short for ammunition, which means bullets. The Twin Cities Ordnance Plant (TCOP) made ammo of all kinds. They sent it to the soldiers fighting in Europe and Asia. Many women worked in ammunition plants like TCOP. They thought making bullets for soldiers was a good way to help their sons, husbands, and fathers who had gone off to war.

Ammunition

Ammunition is a word for the objects that are shot from weapons. These are bullets from World War II, along with a canvas pouch to carry them. The metal box is where the ammunition would be stored.

Ammunition

Ammunition is a word for the objects that are shot from weapons. These are bullets from World War II, along with a canvas pouch to carry them. The metal box is where the ammunition would be stored.

Blue Star Flag

Blue Star flags show how many members of a family are in military service. Families at home hung them in their windows. There's one star for each family member in the Service. If the person dies in the war, family members sew a gold star over the blue one.

Blue Star Flag

Blue Star flags show how many members of a family are in military service. Families at home hung them in their windows. There's one star for each family member in the Service. If the person dies in the war, family members sew a gold star over the blue one.

Boxes of Ammo

The Twin Cities Ordnance Plant made ammo of all kinds. They sent it to the soldiers fighting in Europe and Asia. From 1942 to 1945, 47 million rounds of ammunition was made in the United States.

Boxes of Ammo

The Twin Cities Ordnance Plant made ammo of all kinds. They sent it to the soldiers fighting in Europe and Asia. From 1942 to 1945, 47 million rounds of ammunition was made in the United States.

Calipers

Medical researchers used calipers to measure the effects of starvation on the body. At the end of the war, many people in Europe and Asia did not have enough food to eat. The researchers hoped to find the best way to help them. In 1944-45, doctors worked with volunteers on a Starvation Study. The volunteers were all Conscientious Objectors (COs). That means they chose not to fight because they believed war was morally wrong.

Calipers

Medical researchers used calipers to measure the effects of starvation on the body. At the end of the war, many people in Europe and Asia did not have enough food to eat. The researchers hoped to find the best way to help them. In 1944-45, doctors worked with volunteers on a Starvation Study. The volunteers were all Conscientious Objectors (COs). That means they chose not to fight because they believed war was morally wrong.

Canteen

This canteen includes a water bottle and cup. It was important to make it small and easy to carry. That's why the cup and bottle fit together perfectly. Soldiers never knew if they'd have much access to water when they went into a battle.

Canteen

This canteen includes a water bottle and cup. It was important to make it small and easy to carry. That's why the cup and bottle fit together perfectly. Soldiers never knew if they'd have much access to water when they went into a battle.

Dog Tags

Men and women in the U.S. military wore these identification tags. Their nickname was "dog tags," because the tags reminded people of the ID tags they put on their dogs. Dog tags were important for soldiers in battle. If someone got hurt or even killed, they could be identified by the dog tags. Their family could know what happened to them.

Dog Tags

Men and women in the U.S. military wore these identification tags. Their nickname was "dog tags," because the tags reminded people of the ID tags they put on their dogs. Dog tags were important for soldiers in battle. If someone got hurt or even killed, they could be identified by the dog tags. Their family could know what happened to them.

E Award Pin

The E pin was for people working in wartime factories. This pin was awarded to Pearl Summers Olafson. She made ammunition at the Twin Cities Ordnance Plant. Without bullets like the ones Pearl made, the soldiers couldn't fight! During the war, more than 60% of the plant's employees were women.

E Award Pin

The E pin was for people working in wartime factories. This pin was awarded to Pearl Summers Olafson. She made ammunition at the Twin Cities Ordnance Plant. Without bullets like the ones Pearl made, the soldiers couldn't fight! During the war, more than 60% of the plant's employees were women.

Flight Suit

This jacket was worn by Virginia Mae Hope. She was a Women's Air Force Service Pilot, or WASP. WASPs all had flying experience before entering service. They flew airplanes in non-combat missions. Many WASPs also taught new male soldiers how to fly and flew every kind of type of military plane. Virginia died in a plane crash in 1944, at age 23.

Flight Suit

This jacket was worn by Virginia Mae Hope. She was a Women's Air Force Service Pilot, or WASP. WASPs all had flying experience before entering service. They flew airplanes in non-combat missions. Many WASPs also taught new male soldiers how to fly and flew every kind of type of military plane. Virginia died in a plane crash in 1944, at age 23.

Japanese Flag

This flag belonged to a Japanese soldier in World War II, perhaps to remind him of the country he was fighting for. It was brought back to the United States by Hazel Turk. She was the nurse who gave this Japanese soldier medical attention before he died. She believed everyone deserved humane treatment no matter what side of the war they fought for. "He's somebody's son, too," Hazel said.

Japanese Flag

This flag belonged to a Japanese soldier in World War II, perhaps to remind him of the country he was fighting for. It was brought back to the United States by Hazel Turk. She was the nurse who gave this Japanese soldier medical attention before he died. She believed everyone deserved humane treatment no matter what side of the war they fought for. "He's somebody's son, too," Hazel said.

Japanese-English Dictionary

This Japanese-English dictionary was used during World War II. Minnesota was the home to the Military Intelligence Service Language School at Fort Snelling. U.S. soldiers were trained to translate messages from Japanese to English there. Most of the trainees were Japanese Americans. After training, they were sent to the Pacific to serve.

Japanese-English Dictionary

This Japanese-English dictionary was used during World War II. Minnesota was the home to the Military Intelligence Service Language School at Fort Snelling. U.S. soldiers were trained to translate messages from Japanese to English there. Most of the trainees were Japanese Americans. After training, they were sent to the Pacific to serve.

K-Ration

A K-Ration was food for one day for one soldier. The food in a K-Ration needed to be non-perishable (meaning it wouldn't go bad). It had to be small enough to fit in a soldier's pocket. K-rations often included foods like canned meat, biscuits, and chewing gum. Many food industries worked on ways to make food last longer on the battlefield. These methods became common at home after the war.

K-Ration

A K-Ration was food for one day for one soldier. The food in a K-Ration needed to be non-perishable (meaning it wouldn't go bad). It had to be small enough to fit in a soldier's pocket. K-rations often included foods like canned meat, biscuits, and chewing gum. Many food industries worked on ways to make food last longer on the battlefield. These methods became common at home after the war.

Pilot ID

This ID belonged to Hazel Turk of the 801st Squadron. She was an Evacuation Flight Nurse. She flew in C-47s bringing materials, mail, and other things to combat areas. Then, she and her crew would fly out with wounded men and bring them to the hospital.

Pilot ID

This ID belonged to Hazel Turk of the 801st Squadron. She was an Evacuation Flight Nurse. She flew in C-47s bringing materials, mail, and other things to combat areas. Then, she and her crew would fly out with wounded men and bring them to the hospital.

Poster - Bonds

Bonds were small loans American people made to the US government to help pay for the war. Americans would buy a "bond" and then wait until the end of the war. After 10 years, they could turn it in to the government and get their money back. War stamps were like mini-bonds, for those who couldn't afford to buy a whole bond at once.

Poster - Bonds

Bonds were small loans American people made to the US government to help pay for the war. Americans would buy a "bond" and then wait until the end of the war. After 10 years, they could turn it in to the government and get their money back. War stamps were like mini-bonds, for those who couldn't afford to buy a whole bond at once.

Poster - Grow

Rations were limits on how much food you could buy. The purpose was to make sure there was enough food to send to the soldiers. People made "Victory Gardens" to grow their own food to add to their rations.

Poster - Grow

Rations were limits on how much food you could buy. The purpose was to make sure there was enough food to send to the soldiers. People made "Victory Gardens" to grow their own food to add to their rations.

Poster - Guide

With men gone off to war, it was up to women to protect their families at home and their men overseas. That meant making sure nothing went to waste. They saved food. They donated metal, rubber, and other materials to factories. Those factories turned that "junk" into the tools of war.

Poster - Guide

With men gone off to war, it was up to women to protect their families at home and their men overseas. That meant making sure nothing went to waste. They saved food. They donated metal, rubber, and other materials to factories. Those factories turned that "junk" into the tools of war.

Poster - Proud

Canning was a process of saving food and keeping it from going bad. Women at home were encouraged to can their food so nothing went to waste. They canned foods like peaches, tomatoes and beans.

Poster - Proud

Canning was a process of saving food and keeping it from going bad. Women at home were encouraged to can their food so nothing went to waste. They canned foods like peaches, tomatoes and beans.

Poster - Railroad

The war effort always came first. Americans were encouraged to travel less. This way the railroads would be clear for transporting war goods quickly. They were also encouraged to travel less by car to save gasoline.

Poster - Railroad

The war effort always came first. Americans were encouraged to travel less. This way the railroads would be clear for transporting war goods quickly. They were also encouraged to travel less by car to save gasoline.

Poster - Victory

Americans collected scraps to make tools needed for the war. For example, scrap metal was used to make bullets, airplanes, and more. Mining for new metals or harvesting new rubber took too much time and money. Collecting scrap was faster and cheaper.

Poster - Victory

Americans collected scraps to make tools needed for the war. For example, scrap metal was used to make bullets, airplanes, and more. Mining for new metals or harvesting new rubber took too much time and money. Collecting scrap was faster and cheaper.

Poster - Wheat

Soldiers fighting overseas needed good food to fight well. Having "Meatless Mondays" and "Wheatless Wednesdays" at home was important. It was up to homefront Americans to make sure there was enough food to send to soldiers.

Poster - Wheat

Soldiers fighting overseas needed good food to fight well. Having "Meatless Mondays" and "Wheatless Wednesdays" at home was important. It was up to homefront Americans to make sure there was enough food to send to soldiers.

Pounds of Scrap Metal

Your class collected this many pounds of scrap metal for the war effort.

Pounds of Scrap Metal

Your class collected this many pounds of scrap metal for the war effort.

Typewriter

Typewriters like these were used in the 1930s and 40s. Imagine how hard it was to fix typing mistakes! People on the homefront wrote many letters during World War II to their loved ones in the Service.

Typewriter

Typewriters like these were used in the 1930s and 40s. Imagine how hard it was to fix typing mistakes! People on the homefront wrote many letters during World War II to their loved ones in the Service.

 

Artifacts: The Boom

Birth Announcement

After World War 2, more babies were born in the U.S. than ever before. The 18 years after 1946 are called the "baby boom" years. Some parents showed pride in their country by putting words or pictures from American history on their baby's birth announcement. The Greenbergs mailed this announcement to their friends and family in 1950.

Birth Announcement

After World War 2, more babies were born in the U.S. than ever before. The 18 years after 1946 are called the "baby boom" years. Some parents showed pride in their country by putting words or pictures from American history on their baby's birth announcement. The Greenbergs mailed this announcement to their friends and family in 1950.

Blue Car

This Ford Customline car was built in 1955 in St. Paul, MN. It has an AM radio and two speeds. There is a "Magic Air" heater in the car, but it cost extra in 1955. The car's owners lived in Clinton, a small town in west central Minnesota. The family called this car "Bluebird." It has been driven only 43,270 miles so far.

Blue Car

This Ford Customline car was built in 1955 in St. Paul, MN. It has an AM radio and two speeds. There is a "Magic Air" heater in the car, but it cost extra in 1955. The car's owners lived in Clinton, a small town in west central Minnesota. The family called this car "Bluebird." It has been driven only 43,270 miles so far.

Data Drum

This machine stores information. Built in 1946, it was part of a large, early computer that was invented in St. Paul. It was an exciting invention at the time. It stores 24,000 bytes of information. Today you would need 1.3 million of these machines to store what's on an iPod!

Data Drum

This machine stores information. Built in 1946, it was part of a large, early computer that was invented in St. Paul. It was an exciting invention at the time. It stores 24,000 bytes of information. Today you would need 1.3 million of these machines to store what's on an iPod!

Dishwasher

Dishwashing machines have been around for more than 100 years. During World War II, few dishwashers were made. The United States needed raw materials, such as metal, for the war. In the 1950s, dishwashers were back in stores and were cheaper. More people could buy them.

Dishwasher

Dishwashing machines have been around for more than 100 years. During World War II, few dishwashers were made. The United States needed raw materials, such as metal, for the war. In the 1950s, dishwashers were back in stores and were cheaper. More people could buy them.

Weather Wand

Bud Kraehling was WCCO's very first weatherman. He started in 1949. He used this weather wand to point out weather patterns on a big map while he was on TV. He served in the Signal Corps during the war and was on TV for over 40 years!

Weather Wand

Bud Kraehling was WCCO's very first weatherman. He started in 1949. He used this weather wand to point out weather patterns on a big map while he was on TV. He served in the Signal Corps during the war and was on TV for over 40 years!

Zenith TV

This Zenith "porthole" TV set from about 1950 belongs to Bud Kraehling. He was a TV weatherman in Minneapolis for 46 years. The first Minnesota TV station started in Minneapolis in 1948. By the late 1950s, Rochester, Duluth, and Alexandria all had TV stations too. At that time, 87% of American homes had TVs.

Zenith TV

This Zenith "porthole" TV set from about 1950 belongs to Bud Kraehling. He was a TV weatherman in Minneapolis for 46 years. The first Minnesota TV station started in Minneapolis in 1948. By the late 1950s, Rochester, Duluth, and Alexandria all had TV stations too. At that time, 87% of American homes had TVs.

 

Artifacts: Tipi

Avis Charley

This painting was done in 2012 by a Dakota artist. Her name is Avis Charley. It shows women on a journey. They are from different generations. They experienced pain together when they lost their land.

According to Avis, these women stayed courageous. They stayed generous, too. Look closely at the painting. Can you tell it was painted on top of a map?

Avis Charley

This painting was done in 2012 by a Dakota artist. Her name is Avis Charley. It shows women on a journey. They are from different generations. They experienced pain together when they lost their land.

According to Avis, these women stayed courageous. They stayed generous, too. Look closely at the painting. Can you tell it was painted on top of a map?

Bobby

Bobby Wilson is a Sisseton Dakota artist who grew up in Minneapolis. You met him and some of his friends, while playing the game at the History Center.

He writes spoken word poetry, makes humorous films, and designs websites. He also paints murals, often with spray paint. He says, "I'm a city boy. I grew up skateboarding, I grew up writing on walls."

When asked about his art, he explains, "I'm Dakota and I'm still representing my culture and a love for my people but at the same time, I'm also a modern man, and my tools have changed. . . I just want to be somebody that is positive and that maybe some other Indian kids will say, "Well that dude, he's doing all right."

Bobby

Bobby Wilson is a Sisseton Dakota artist who grew up in Minneapolis. You met him and some of his friends, while playing the game at the History Center.

He writes spoken word poetry, makes humorous films, and designs websites. He also paints murals, often with spray paint. He says, "I'm a city boy. I grew up skateboarding, I grew up writing on walls."

When asked about his art, he explains, "I'm Dakota and I'm still representing my culture and a love for my people but at the same time, I'm also a modern man, and my tools have changed. . . I just want to be somebody that is positive and that maybe some other Indian kids will say, "Well that dude, he's doing all right."

Bobby's artwork

Bobby Wilson created this work of art in 2012. To make it, he attached together five skateboard decks (the part you stand on). Bobby spray-painted each deck with different colors and designs.

This artwork is now part of the collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. You may remember seeing it at the History Center, near the tipi.

Bobby's artwork

Bobby Wilson created this work of art in 2012. To make it, he attached together five skateboard decks (the part you stand on). Bobby spray-painted each deck with different colors and designs.

This artwork is now part of the collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. You may remember seeing it at the History Center, near the tipi.

Bright Colors

Look at these bright colors. Do they remind you of Dallas Goldtooth's cuff?

When Dakota people did quillwork hundreds of years ago, they used dyes found in nature. These dyes often came from plants found in areas where Dakota people lived.

Bright colors were not always available. Today, bright colors are a modern take on a traditional form of art.

Bright Colors

Look at these bright colors. Do they remind you of Dallas Goldtooth's cuff?

When Dakota people did quillwork hundreds of years ago, they used dyes found in nature. These dyes often came from plants found in areas where Dakota people lived.

Bright colors were not always available. Today, bright colors are a modern take on a traditional form of art.

Caŋpa´ (Chokecherries)

This fruit is called Caŋpa´ (say cham - PAH). In English that's chokecherries.

Sasha taught you to make sauce out of them. You might buy berries at the store, but they are found in nature. Caŋpa´ grow on short trees called shrubs.

Their fruit starts out red but turns purple as it ripens. Like many fruits, they taste sweeter when ripe.

Sasha's ancestors had many uses for them. Chokecherries are tasty food, but they are also used as medicine to help with upset stomachs.

Caŋpa´ (Chokecherries)

This fruit is called Caŋpa´ (say cham - PAH). In English that's chokecherries.

Sasha taught you to make sauce out of them. You might buy berries at the store, but they are found in nature. Caŋpa´ grow on short trees called shrubs.

Their fruit starts out red but turns purple as it ripens. Like many fruits, they taste sweeter when ripe.

Sasha's ancestors had many uses for them. Chokecherries are tasty food, but they are also used as medicine to help with upset stomachs.

Cradleboard

This object is called a cradleboard. Its purpose is to carry a baby. You've probably seen parents today using a special carrier to hold a baby close.

This one was made by Dakota parents. Their names are Hope Two Hearts and Galen Drapeau. They made the cradleboard around 1980, but Dakota people have been making them for centuries.

Traditional Dakota people moved from place to place. They followed the seasons. Carriers like these kept babies safe and comfortable.

The wooden stakes allow family members to lean the board against an object like a tree. This way, the infant can stay upright. This cradleboard is made of animal hide. It has designs made from porcupine quills.

Cradleboard

This object is called a cradleboard. Its purpose is to carry a baby. You've probably seen parents today using a special carrier to hold a baby close.

This one was made by Dakota parents. Their names are Hope Two Hearts and Galen Drapeau. They made the cradleboard around 1980, but Dakota people have been making them for centuries.

Traditional Dakota people moved from place to place. They followed the seasons. Carriers like these kept babies safe and comfortable.

The wooden stakes allow family members to lean the board against an object like a tree. This way, the infant can stay upright. This cradleboard is made of animal hide. It has designs made from porcupine quills.

Dakota Communities in Minnesota Today

This map shows Dakota reservation communities in Minnesota today. Dakota people live in Canada and in other states, too. They also have reservations in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The communities on this map are recognized by the U.S. government. Each has its own leaders.

Maybe your class has studied the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862. This war had many painful effects. After the war, many Dakota people were forced by the United States government to leave their Minnesota homeland. Some never returned. Their descendants still live in other states or Canada. Today, Dakota people live on reservations, and in cities and towns all over.

Dakota Communities in Minnesota Today

This map shows Dakota reservation communities in Minnesota today. Dakota people live in Canada and in other states, too. They also have reservations in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The communities on this map are recognized by the U.S. government. Each has its own leaders.

Maybe your class has studied the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862. This war had many painful effects. After the war, many Dakota people were forced by the United States government to leave their Minnesota homeland. Some never returned. Their descendants still live in other states or Canada. Today, Dakota people live on reservations, and in cities and towns all over.

Dallas

Meet Dallas Goldtooth. He teaches people about Dakota culture. He is also a poet and a proud father.

Dallas is an artist who learned skills from his mother and stepfather. His designs are influenced by sunrises and sunsets in Minnesota.

His work often includes star designs. They remind him of stars you can see when day turns to night.

Dallas

Meet Dallas Goldtooth. He teaches people about Dakota culture. He is also a poet and a proud father.

Dallas is an artist who learned skills from his mother and stepfather. His designs are influenced by sunrises and sunsets in Minnesota.

His work often includes star designs. They remind him of stars you can see when day turns to night.

Dallas's cuff

An artist named Dallas Goldtooth made this cuff to be worn on someone's wrist. He spent many hours working on it. Do you remember meeting him in the game?

Notice the cuff's bright colors, which are popular today. Dallas finished this in 2013, but he used traditional methods to make it.

The colorful stripes are made from porcupine quills. The quills were removed from the porcupine skin, then flattened. Next Dallas dyed the quills and sewed them in this design.

Dallas's cuff

An artist named Dallas Goldtooth made this cuff to be worn on someone's wrist. He spent many hours working on it. Do you remember meeting him in the game?

Notice the cuff's bright colors, which are popular today. Dallas finished this in 2013, but he used traditional methods to make it.

The colorful stripes are made from porcupine quills. The quills were removed from the porcupine skin, then flattened. Next Dallas dyed the quills and sewed them in this design.

Glenn

Meet Glenn Wasicuna. He speaks more than one language, but Dakota was his first. He learned it at a young age from adults who spoke it regularly.

Now he is one of the few people in Minnesota who learned it this way. He has said that many American Indians who cannot speak their native language experience pain because of it.

Glenn has spent many years teaching people of all ages to speak Dakota. Teaching students like you about his culture is also important to him.

Glenn

Meet Glenn Wasicuna. He speaks more than one language, but Dakota was his first. He learned it at a young age from adults who spoke it regularly.

Now he is one of the few people in Minnesota who learned it this way. He has said that many American Indians who cannot speak their native language experience pain because of it.

Glenn has spent many years teaching people of all ages to speak Dakota. Teaching students like you about his culture is also important to him.

Holly Young Cuff

This is a cuff, a piece of jewelry for someone's wrist. It was made in 2016 by a Dakota beadworker. Her name is Holly Young and she lives in North Dakota.

She has said, "One of my goals is to bring light to our beautiful traditions and beadwork." To design this cuff, she came to the History Center to see some Dakota items that were made a long time ago. She saw bags, leggings, and moccasins that were made by Dakota people in the 1880's and 1890's.

These items had designs that looked like flowers. Holly's cuff also has floral designs. Some people call cuffs wearable art.

Holly Young Cuff

This is a cuff, a piece of jewelry for someone's wrist. It was made in 2016 by a Dakota beadworker. Her name is Holly Young and she lives in North Dakota.

She has said, "One of my goals is to bring light to our beautiful traditions and beadwork." To design this cuff, she came to the History Center to see some Dakota items that were made a long time ago. She saw bags, leggings, and moccasins that were made by Dakota people in the 1880's and 1890's.

These items had designs that looked like flowers. Holly's cuff also has floral designs. Some people call cuffs wearable art.

Moccasins

These shoes are called moccasins. They were made more than 100 years ago. A Dakota person made them out of leather. They are decorated with porcupine quills. The quills were dyed blue and purple. Notice their flower pattern.

Bobby Wilson wanted his art to look like patterns from long ago. He saw these moccasins and based some of his designs on them. If you look closely at his skateboard art, you may notice similarities.

Moccasins

These shoes are called moccasins. They were made more than 100 years ago. A Dakota person made them out of leather. They are decorated with porcupine quills. The quills were dyed blue and purple. Notice their flower pattern.

Bobby Wilson wanted his art to look like patterns from long ago. He saw these moccasins and based some of his designs on them. If you look closely at his skateboard art, you may notice similarities.

Quills

These spikes are called quills. They came from an animal called a porcupine, which has these standing tall on its back. The white ones shown here are natural, but the green and pink ones have been dyed.

Long before Dakota people came into contact with Europeans, they used quills to decorate things. Today, Dakota artists are finding new ways to use this method to honor the past.

Quills

These spikes are called quills. They came from an animal called a porcupine, which has these standing tall on its back. The white ones shown here are natural, but the green and pink ones have been dyed.

Long before Dakota people came into contact with Europeans, they used quills to decorate things. Today, Dakota artists are finding new ways to use this method to honor the past.

Sasha

Meet Sasha Houston Brown. During Play the Past, she taught you about cooking.

She eats some of the same foods her Dakota ancestors did long ago. These traditions help her express her own identity today.

Sasha wants lots of people to know about her community's contributions. For this reason, she is a writer. Her words can be found online in conversations about her culture.

Most of Sasha's life she has lived in Minneapolis. Organizations across the country invite her to speak about Dakota culture.

Sasha

Meet Sasha Houston Brown. During Play the Past, she taught you about cooking.

She eats some of the same foods her Dakota ancestors did long ago. These traditions help her express her own identity today.

Sasha wants lots of people to know about her community's contributions. For this reason, she is a writer. Her words can be found online in conversations about her culture.

Most of Sasha's life she has lived in Minneapolis. Organizations across the country invite her to speak about Dakota culture.

Spray Paint

Spray paint is a tool Bobby Wilson uses in his art. Do you remember the tipi in the museum? Bobby painted the outside of it with spray paint.

He learned this style of art in Minneapolis, where he grew up. Bobby paints murals to express his culture. "A lot of my spray paint work became heavily cultural," he has said. He points out that his art style works well on tipis.

To Bobby, tipis signify home, but also impermanence. "I'd like people to recognize the need to move around,” he said, "but I also want them to look at it and feel really good about something, about the world, about themselves.”

Spray Paint

Spray paint is a tool Bobby Wilson uses in his art. Do you remember the tipi in the museum? Bobby painted the outside of it with spray paint.

He learned this style of art in Minneapolis, where he grew up. Bobby paints murals to express his culture. "A lot of my spray paint work became heavily cultural," he has said. He points out that his art style works well on tipis.

To Bobby, tipis signify home, but also impermanence. "I'd like people to recognize the need to move around,” he said, "but I also want them to look at it and feel really good about something, about the world, about themselves.”

Tataŋka (Bison)

Do you know what kind of steak this is? It is Tataŋka (say Tuh - TAN - kah) meat. Another word for this animal is bison.

Hundreds of years ago, bison helped Dakota people survive. Bison meat is still a valuable part of Dakota culture today.

Dakota people honor bison for the gifts they give. These include tipis, clothing, and food.

Tataŋka (Bison)

Do you know what kind of steak this is? It is Tataŋka (say Tuh - TAN - kah) meat. Another word for this animal is bison.

Hundreds of years ago, bison helped Dakota people survive. Bison meat is still a valuable part of Dakota culture today.

Dakota people honor bison for the gifts they give. These include tipis, clothing, and food.

Thíņpsiņna (Turnips)

Do you remember the vegetable you added to Sasha's meal during Play the Past? In Dakota it is called thíņpsiņna.

This food grows in the ground. It is a kind of turnip eaten by Dakota people long ago and also today. Thíņpsiņna are peeled, sliced, dried, and then cooked.

Men, women, and children dig them up. In the past, people used sticks to dig up these vegetables. Today, shovels are used sometimes.

Thíņpsiņna (Turnips)

Do you remember the vegetable you added to Sasha's meal during Play the Past? In Dakota it is called thíņpsiņna.

This food grows in the ground. It is a kind of turnip eaten by Dakota people long ago and also today. Thíņpsiņna are peeled, sliced, dried, and then cooked.

Men, women, and children dig them up. In the past, people used sticks to dig up these vegetables. Today, shovels are used sometimes.

Vanessa

Meet Vanessa Goodthunder. During college she learned to speak Dakota. Now she teaches it to others.

"Dakota is a dying language," she has said. Keeping it alive is one of her life goals. Improving life for Native youth is another. She works with people across the country to do this.

Vanessa helps solve problems in her community, like health and transportation. She wants to stay close her her reservation, so she can make a difference.

Vanessa

Meet Vanessa Goodthunder. During college she learned to speak Dakota. Now she teaches it to others.

"Dakota is a dying language," she has said. Keeping it alive is one of her life goals. Improving life for Native youth is another. She works with people across the country to do this.

Vanessa helps solve problems in her community, like health and transportation. She wants to stay close her her reservation, so she can make a difference.

 

Artifacts: Iron Mine

Anton Antilla

Anton Antilla is 17 years old and works as a trammer in a Biwabik mine. He immigrated from Finland in 1906 and had to work 10-14 hour days in dangerous conditions. Anton became involved in worker strikes after seeing many of his fellow miners get seriously injured on the job. After the strike Anton was blacklisted, no mine would hire him because he had joined a union, so he became a farmer near Palo, Minnesota. He married Ida and they had 4 children, Toivo, Arvo, Anton, and Esther.

Check out this MNHS Collections photo of Anton and his family outside their home in Palo, MN.

Anton Antilla

Anton Antilla is 17 years old and works as a trammer in a Biwabik mine. He immigrated from Finland in 1906 and had to work 10-14 hour days in dangerous conditions. Anton became involved in worker strikes after seeing many of his fellow miners get seriously injured on the job. After the strike Anton was blacklisted, no mine would hire him because he had joined a union, so he became a farmer near Palo, Minnesota. He married Ida and they had 4 children, Toivo, Arvo, Anton, and Esther.

Check out this MNHS Collections photo of Anton and his family outside their home in Palo, MN.

Backer Pole

The backer's job was the most dangerous in the mine. His job was to check the site after it was blasted by dynamite. They used a backer pole to check for loose rock by tapping the rock to make sure it was sturdy and safe to mine there. There was always danger of a cave-in if they tapped the wrong spot.

See an MNHS Collections photo of backers at work 

Backer Pole

The backer's job was the most dangerous in the mine. His job was to check the site after it was blasted by dynamite. They used a backer pole to check for loose rock by tapping the rock to make sure it was sturdy and safe to mine there. There was always danger of a cave-in if they tapped the wrong spot.

See an MNHS Collections photo of backers at work 

Cents

$1.00 scrip note printed for the Oliver Iron Mining Company by the Christie Lithograph & Printing Company (both of Duluth, Minnesota) in 1907. The bill's central image shows miners working, evidently panning and picking for gold; the name of the company spans its top.

Take a closer look at the MNHS Collections photo of this scrip note.

Cents

$1.00 scrip note printed for the Oliver Iron Mining Company by the Christie Lithograph & Printing Company (both of Duluth, Minnesota) in 1907. The bill's central image shows miners working, evidently panning and picking for gold; the name of the company spans its top.

Take a closer look at the MNHS Collections photo of this scrip note.

Drill

Drillers on the Iron Range used large diamond tipped drills to create holes for dynamite. They had to be careful not to drill a hole too shallow or too deep. This job came with many dangers. There was very little protective gear in hte early days, so it was common to lose an eye while drilling.
Look at a MNHS Collections photo of drillers in an Iron Range mine

Drill

Drillers on the Iron Range used large diamond tipped drills to create holes for dynamite. They had to be careful not to drill a hole too shallow or too deep. This job came with many dangers. There was very little protective gear in hte early days, so it was common to lose an eye while drilling.
Look at a MNHS Collections photo of drillers in an Iron Range mine

Dynamite

Blasting is one of the most dangerous jobs in the mine. Carelessness or trying to hurry can lead to serious injuries or worse. After holes are drilled into the rock, dynamite is very carefully packed together before the fuses are lit. The miners only have a short time to take shelter before BOOM goes the dynamite!

Check out a MNHS Collections photo of blasters in an Iron Range mine

Dynamite

Blasting is one of the most dangerous jobs in the mine. Carelessness or trying to hurry can lead to serious injuries or worse. After holes are drilled into the rock, dynamite is very carefully packed together before the fuses are lit. The miners only have a short time to take shelter before BOOM goes the dynamite!

Check out a MNHS Collections photo of blasters in an Iron Range mine

Helmet

Helmets were one of the few pieces of safety equipment used in the early days of mining. Waterproof helmets kept the miners' heads safe and protected, while attached lamps lit the way for them to do their jobs. This helmet has a kerosene lamp fixture attached to the front. It was worn by Adam Shapic circa 1910-1930s. Mr. Shapic immigrated to Minnesota from Croatia in 1910 and wore this helmet in iron mines near Virginia, Minnesota, until he was injured in a mining accident that left him paralyzed. Did you get a chance to see the actual helmet in the exhibit?

Check out the helmet in the MNHS collection

Helmet

Helmets were one of the few pieces of safety equipment used in the early days of mining. Waterproof helmets kept the miners' heads safe and protected, while attached lamps lit the way for them to do their jobs. This helmet has a kerosene lamp fixture attached to the front. It was worn by Adam Shapic circa 1910-1930s. Mr. Shapic immigrated to Minnesota from Croatia in 1910 and wore this helmet in iron mines near Virginia, Minnesota, until he was injured in a mining accident that left him paralyzed. Did you get a chance to see the actual helmet in the exhibit?

Check out the helmet in the MNHS collection

Iron Mine Map

From the 1880s to the 1910s, dozens of towns were built near the huge iron ore deposits in northeastern Minnesota. This is an example of how natural resources affected settlement.

Iron Mine Map

From the 1880s to the 1910s, dozens of towns were built near the huge iron ore deposits in northeastern Minnesota. This is an example of how natural resources affected settlement.

Matti Pelto

Matti Pelto works as a trammer in the Pettit mine near Sparta, Minnesota.  He arrived from Finland in 1908 when he was 27 years old.  He joined his brother and worked on the Iron Range for many years before returning to Finland where he married and farmed

Matti Pelto

Matti Pelto works as a trammer in the Pettit mine near Sparta, Minnesota.  He arrived from Finland in 1908 when he was 27 years old.  He joined his brother and worked on the Iron Range for many years before returning to Finland where he married and farmed

Mike Zakotnik

Mike Zakotnik works as a miner in the Milford mine.  He was born in 1887 and came to America seekinga better life in 1901 when he was 14 years old from Yugoslavia.  Mike is married to Josephine and they have 5 kids: Josephine, Albin, Mike, Tony, and Girdon.  Mike was one of only 7 miners who managed to narrowly escape one of the worst disasters on the Iron Range, a mud slide that killed over 40 miners on Febrary 5, 1924.

Mike Zakotnik

Mike Zakotnik works as a miner in the Milford mine.  He was born in 1887 and came to America seekinga better life in 1901 when he was 14 years old from Yugoslavia.  Mike is married to Josephine and they have 5 kids: Josephine, Albin, Mike, Tony, and Girdon.  Mike was one of only 7 miners who managed to narrowly escape one of the worst disasters on the Iron Range, a mud slide that killed over 40 miners on Febrary 5, 1924.

Miners

The discovery of iron ore in northern Minnesota sparked a rush of people to the region.  Most of them were immigrants who had come to Minnesota to work in the iron mines.  The oliver Mining Company employed workers from a long list of foreign countries including: Finland, Croatia, Slovenia, Italy, Slovakia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Poland. Work days were long - up to 14 hours.  The miners were paid by the amount of iron ore they produced, instead of by the hour or by the day.  To earn more money, they had to bribe their supervisors (called foremen) to let them work in places where the ore was most plentiful and easiest to remove.  In the early 1900s, a miner earned about $1.65 per day in wages. 

Miners

The discovery of iron ore in northern Minnesota sparked a rush of people to the region.  Most of them were immigrants who had come to Minnesota to work in the iron mines.  The oliver Mining Company employed workers from a long list of foreign countries including: Finland, Croatia, Slovenia, Italy, Slovakia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Poland. Work days were long - up to 14 hours.  The miners were paid by the amount of iron ore they produced, instead of by the hour or by the day.  To earn more money, they had to bribe their supervisors (called foremen) to let them work in places where the ore was most plentiful and easiest to remove.  In the early 1900s, a miner earned about $1.65 per day in wages. 

 

Artifacts: Fur Trade

Ax Head

Ax heads were a hot commodity at the fur post. Forged in England, the Europeans brought them to the fur post to trade for pelts. The Ojibwe appreciated these strong and durable tools for their multi-purpose uses around their camps.

Check out an ax head in the MNHS Collection

Ax Head

Ax heads were a hot commodity at the fur post. Forged in England, the Europeans brought them to the fur post to trade for pelts. The Ojibwe appreciated these strong and durable tools for their multi-purpose uses around their camps.

Check out an ax head in the MNHS Collection

Bandolier Bag

Beautifully decorated bandolier bags were a special item at the fur post. Ojibwe women skillfully decorated leather hide pouches worn by both Ojibwe and European men. The bags were decorated with materials like porcupine quills or trade items like glass beads from Europe with nature designs such as flowers and leaves. Did you get a chance to see some bandolier bags in the exhibit?

Check out an MNHS Collections Up Close about bandolier bags

Bandolier Bag

Beautifully decorated bandolier bags were a special item at the fur post. Ojibwe women skillfully decorated leather hide pouches worn by both Ojibwe and European men. The bags were decorated with materials like porcupine quills or trade items like glass beads from Europe with nature designs such as flowers and leaves. Did you get a chance to see some bandolier bags in the exhibit?

Check out an MNHS Collections Up Close about bandolier bags

Beads

Glass beads from Italy, Holland, and Bohemia were popular with Ojibwe women as an additional way to show off their design skills on everything from moccasins to Bandolier bags. Beautiful nature patterns were stitched onto clothing along with shells, bones, clay beads, and porcupine quills along with European items like mirrors, bells and sequins.

Check out the beads in the MNHS Collection

Beads

Glass beads from Italy, Holland, and Bohemia were popular with Ojibwe women as an additional way to show off their design skills on everything from moccasins to Bandolier bags. Beautiful nature patterns were stitched onto clothing along with shells, bones, clay beads, and porcupine quills along with European items like mirrors, bells and sequins.

Check out the beads in the MNHS Collection

Beaver Pelt

The pelt preparers readied the furs for trade. Dakota and Ojibwe women carefull cut the skin off the animal and turned it inside out. This protected the fur, which was the most valuable part to the Europeans.

Beaver Pelt

The pelt preparers readied the furs for trade. Dakota and Ojibwe women carefull cut the skin off the animal and turned it inside out. This protected the fur, which was the most valuable part to the Europeans.

Blanket

Traders brought wool blankets from European mills to trade to the Ojibwe for beaver pelts. The Ojibwe had always worn clothes made of tree fibers and animal hides but they enjoyed European fabrics because they time they could save skinning and preparing hides for wear. Clothing made from blankets and fabric was lighter and easier to clean as well so the Ojibwe women could spend their time working on other activities around camp.

Blanket

Traders brought wool blankets from European mills to trade to the Ojibwe for beaver pelts. The Ojibwe had always worn clothes made of tree fibers and animal hides but they enjoyed European fabrics because they time they could save skinning and preparing hides for wear. Clothing made from blankets and fabric was lighter and easier to clean as well so the Ojibwe women could spend their time working on other activities around camp.

Fabric

It was the women's job to make clothing, and it took a lot of time to scrape and process animal hides. Clohing made of out fabric was easy to keep dry and clean, and it saved time making animal hide clothing.

Fabric

It was the women's job to make clothing, and it took a lot of time to scrape and process animal hides. Clohing made of out fabric was easy to keep dry and clean, and it saved time making animal hide clothing.

Fur Post Map

Hundreds of trading posts were set up in Minnesota by the French, British, and American fur traders. Some were used only one year and left little evidence. Some lasted for a decade or more and had more permanent structures. A few were major enters for trade and gathering points for rendezvous each spring.

Fur Post Map

Hundreds of trading posts were set up in Minnesota by the French, British, and American fur traders. Some were used only one year and left little evidence. Some lasted for a decade or more and had more permanent structures. A few were major enters for trade and gathering points for rendezvous each spring.

Gun

Europeans brought gun to the fur post for Ojibwe hunters. Sometimes they brought specially-made guns for the fur trade, with triggers large enough to use while wearing mittens!

Gun

Europeans brought gun to the fur post for Ojibwe hunters. Sometimes they brought specially-made guns for the fur trade, with triggers large enough to use while wearing mittens!

Gunpowder

Gunpower was very important if you want your gun to work. The Europeans would have brought large supplies of it to the post.

Gunpowder

Gunpower was very important if you want your gun to work. The Europeans would have brought large supplies of it to the post.

Hoe

Hoes and other tools made of metal were popular items at the fur post. They lasted longer than tools made of stone and bone.

Hoe

Hoes and other tools made of metal were popular items at the fur post. They lasted longer than tools made of stone and bone.

John Sayer

John Sayer was a wintering partner at the Snake River fur post near current day Pine City. He spent most of his life in Canada, but in 1804 he came to Minnesota to create the Snake River trading post for the North West Company.

John Sayer

John Sayer was a wintering partner at the Snake River fur post near current day Pine City. He spent most of his life in Canada, but in 1804 he came to Minnesota to create the Snake River trading post for the North West Company.

Kettle

Metal kettles were a very popular item among the Ojibwe at the fur post. Prior to the fur trade, pots and containers made from clay or woven baskets were used. Metal was easier to cook with and lasted longer.

Check out a kettle in the MNHS Collection

Kettle

Metal kettles were a very popular item among the Ojibwe at the fur post. Prior to the fur trade, pots and containers made from clay or woven baskets were used. Metal was easier to cook with and lasted longer.

Check out a kettle in the MNHS Collection

Knife

Europeans brought many metals goods to the fur post. Items like steel knives were very popular; American Indians used them alongside traditional tools made from bone, stone, and shell.

Knife

Europeans brought many metals goods to the fur post. Items like steel knives were very popular; American Indians used them alongside traditional tools made from bone, stone, and shell.

Monsomanian

Monsomanain was an Ojibwe hunter who was one of the first to bring pelts to the Snake River fur post that John Sayer worked at around the year 1804.

Monsomanian

Monsomanain was an Ojibwe hunter who was one of the first to bring pelts to the Snake River fur post that John Sayer worked at around the year 1804.

Musket Balls

Musket balls are small metal bullets used with musket guns. They were bought at the fur trade post for hunting animals for meat and pelts.

Musket Balls

Musket balls are small metal bullets used with musket guns. They were bought at the fur trade post for hunting animals for meat and pelts.

Muskrat Spears

These spears made of iron were great for hunting muskrats. The Ojibwe used both traditional spearheads made of stone and the iron ones brought by Europeans during the fur trade.

Muskrat Spears

These spears made of iron were great for hunting muskrats. The Ojibwe used both traditional spearheads made of stone and the iron ones brought by Europeans during the fur trade.

Ojibwe Woman

American Indian women were very important to the fur trade. In addition to cleaning the pelts, women were the ones who provided many of the resources that kept the trade going, such as: wild rice, maple sugar and materials to make and repair canoes. Some women learned French and English and served as interpreters, translating the conversations between European and American Indians. They built an important link between communities by marrying traders. These marriages helped form family bonds that strengthened business ties. The children of these marriages came to play key roles in the fur trade.

Ojibwe Woman

American Indian women were very important to the fur trade. In addition to cleaning the pelts, women were the ones who provided many of the resources that kept the trade going, such as: wild rice, maple sugar and materials to make and repair canoes. Some women learned French and English and served as interpreters, translating the conversations between European and American Indians. They built an important link between communities by marrying traders. These marriages helped form family bonds that strengthened business ties. The children of these marriages came to play key roles in the fur trade.

Plume

Ostrich plumes came from Africa. They were prized for being beautiful decorations.

Plume

Ostrich plumes came from Africa. They were prized for being beautiful decorations.

 

Artifacts: Sod House

Blanket

With only a stove to keep the sod house warm, blankets and warm clothing were very important for staying warm in the winter. Especially during the night, when the stove wouldn't be lit or very little, it was important to have many layers.

Check out this knitted wool afghan in the MNHS Collections

Blanket

With only a stove to keep the sod house warm, blankets and warm clothing were very important for staying warm in the winter. Especially during the night, when the stove wouldn't be lit or very little, it was important to have many layers.

Check out this knitted wool afghan in the MNHS Collections

Cabinet

It will be a while until you can eat the food you'll harvest, so you brought supplies with you. No Taco Tuesdays here, you'll have few choices or variety in what you eat. Hope you like bread and preserved vegetables!

Check out this cabinet in the MNHS Collection

Cabinet

It will be a while until you can eat the food you'll harvest, so you brought supplies with you. No Taco Tuesdays here, you'll have few choices or variety in what you eat. Hope you like bread and preserved vegetables!

Check out this cabinet in the MNHS Collection

Candle

No light switches here! Candles are very expensive so use it only when necessary. You can only sew or read for a little bit because your eyes get tired quickly in the dim light. In the unhappy event you have to set your fields on fire to fend off a plague of grasshoppers, a candle would do the trick.

Candle

No light switches here! Candles are very expensive so use it only when necessary. You can only sew or read for a little bit because your eyes get tired quickly in the dim light. In the unhappy event you have to set your fields on fire to fend off a plague of grasshoppers, a candle would do the trick.

Clothes

Waste not, want not! Settlers are so far away from towns, they rarely have a chance to buy cloth to make new clothing. If you only get one new outfit a year, it has to last until it’s worn out! Then you can repair it and hand it down to your younger sibling to wear.

Check out this piece of clothing in the MNHS Collections

Clothes

Waste not, want not! Settlers are so far away from towns, they rarely have a chance to buy cloth to make new clothing. If you only get one new outfit a year, it has to last until it’s worn out! Then you can repair it and hand it down to your younger sibling to wear.

Check out this piece of clothing in the MNHS Collections

Garden

Settlers had large fields of crops to sell, but they also had smaller gardens to feed their families, with root vegetables, cabbage, and sometimes watermelon in the summer.

Garden

Settlers had large fields of crops to sell, but they also had smaller gardens to feed their families, with root vegetables, cabbage, and sometimes watermelon in the summer.

Georgie Carpenter

Georgie Carpenter moved to Marshall with his family when he was a small boy in 1870.

Georgie Carpenter

Georgie Carpenter moved to Marshall with his family when he was a small boy in 1870.

German Clock

Thirty day pendulum clock has a wood case with painted glass doors that feature a gold and black scroll design on the lower sections. Clock was purchased by the donor's grandfather near Baden-Baden, Germany.

German Clock

Thirty day pendulum clock has a wood case with painted glass doors that feature a gold and black scroll design on the lower sections. Clock was purchased by the donor's grandfather near Baden-Baden, Germany.

Ground Cherries

Ground cherries, blackberries, and raspberries are just a few of the berries that grow naturally in Minnesota. The settlers gathered berries and other edibles in the wild to add to their food supplies. Settlers like Mary Carpenter used ground cherries to make jams, pies, and preserves.

Check out this MNHS Collection of a cherry basket quilt

Ground Cherries

Ground cherries, blackberries, and raspberries are just a few of the berries that grow naturally in Minnesota. The settlers gathered berries and other edibles in the wild to add to their food supplies. Settlers like Mary Carpenter used ground cherries to make jams, pies, and preserves.

Check out this MNHS Collection of a cherry basket quilt

Hair Jewelry

Although it may make us squeamish in the 21st century, during the 1800s, it was popular to give jewelry made out of your hair to friends and family as keepsakes. It was thought to be a sentimental way to remember loved ones in a time when long distance contact was limited to letters. Did you get a chance to see the hair jewelry in the exhibit?

Read a MNHS article about hair jewelry

Hair Jewelry

Although it may make us squeamish in the 21st century, during the 1800s, it was popular to give jewelry made out of your hair to friends and family as keepsakes. It was thought to be a sentimental way to remember loved ones in a time when long distance contact was limited to letters. Did you get a chance to see the hair jewelry in the exhibit?

Read a MNHS article about hair jewelry

Homestead Act

The Homestead Act of 1862 gave anyone 21 years or older the chance to settle a 160 acre piece of land within 5 years.  If successful, the land was theirs to keep, leading to rapid immigration of the Western United States.

Research the Homestead Act at the National Archives

Homestead Act

The Homestead Act of 1862 gave anyone 21 years or older the chance to settle a 160 acre piece of land within 5 years.  If successful, the land was theirs to keep, leading to rapid immigration of the Western United States.

Research the Homestead Act at the National Archives

Mamie Carpenter

Ten year old Mamie Carpenter moved with her family to Marshall, Minnesota in 1870 to start a new life farming on the prairie. She grew up to be a schoolteacher before she married George Hurd.

Mamie Carpenter

Ten year old Mamie Carpenter moved with her family to Marshall, Minnesota in 1870 to start a new life farming on the prairie. She grew up to be a schoolteacher before she married George Hurd.

Mary Carpenter

Mary Carpenter moved to Marshall, Minnesota in 1870 from Rochester with her husband George, and two kids, Mamie and Georgie. They built a homestead and faced many obstacles during their time on the prairie.

Read more about Mary Carpenter in this MNHS article

Mary Carpenter

Mary Carpenter moved to Marshall, Minnesota in 1870 from Rochester with her husband George, and two kids, Mamie and Georgie. They built a homestead and faced many obstacles during their time on the prairie.

Read more about Mary Carpenter in this MNHS article

Newspaper

Many of the settlers are immigrants who may not know English yet so they read Norwegian newspapers to stay connected to their community.Plastering the sod walls with newspaper keeps the warmth in and the bugs out. 

Newspaper

Many of the settlers are immigrants who may not know English yet so they read Norwegian newspapers to stay connected to their community.Plastering the sod walls with newspaper keeps the warmth in and the bugs out. 

Norwegian Spinning Wheel

This Flyer type spinning wheel was made of oak with three turned legs supporting the stock. The wooden treadle shaft connects to a twelve-spoke wheel. The wheel was made in 1845 in Norway and brought to the United States in 1870 and then to Dakota Territory.

Norwegian Spinning Wheel

This Flyer type spinning wheel was made of oak with three turned legs supporting the stock. The wooden treadle shaft connects to a twelve-spoke wheel. The wheel was made in 1845 in Norway and brought to the United States in 1870 and then to Dakota Territory.

Plow

Before settlers could farm the rich Minnesota soil, they had to break the sod, a thick layer of prairie grass roots. It was hard, backbreaking work plodding behind oxen all day, but plowing would pay off in the fall when the settlers would harvest their crops.
See a MNHS Collections photo of a real settler plowing fields

Plow

Before settlers could farm the rich Minnesota soil, they had to break the sod, a thick layer of prairie grass roots. It was hard, backbreaking work plodding behind oxen all day, but plowing would pay off in the fall when the settlers would harvest their crops.
See a MNHS Collections photo of a real settler plowing fields

Prairie Chicken

The only meat, usually rabbits and prairie chicken, eaten on the prairie was hunted with traps and rifles. Prairie chickens followed settlers as they moved across the prairie, but they are hard to find today. Farm animals like sheep, chickens, and cows would be used for milk, eggs, and wool, and not as much for meat.

Look at this MNHS photo of prairie chickens

Prairie Chicken

The only meat, usually rabbits and prairie chicken, eaten on the prairie was hunted with traps and rifles. Prairie chickens followed settlers as they moved across the prairie, but they are hard to find today. Farm animals like sheep, chickens, and cows would be used for milk, eggs, and wool, and not as much for meat.

Look at this MNHS photo of prairie chickens

Prairie Grass

Your family uses the cooking stove to stay warm in the winter; it must constantly be fed with straw bundles to stay warm. Even though the sod house keeps you warmer than one made of wood, it’s always chilly inside. Sometimes it is so cold in the morning; you can see your breath! 

Prairie Grass

Your family uses the cooking stove to stay warm in the winter; it must constantly be fed with straw bundles to stay warm. Even though the sod house keeps you warmer than one made of wood, it’s always chilly inside. Sometimes it is so cold in the morning; you can see your breath! 

Rug Beater

It may look like a fly swatter but rug beaters keep the dirt off your rug. With a dirt or grass floor, you do what you have to keep what you have clean.

Rug Beater

It may look like a fly swatter but rug beaters keep the dirt off your rug. With a dirt or grass floor, you do what you have to keep what you have clean.

Sod House

With few trees in sight on the prairie, houses had to be built from sod, large pieces of earth. Blocks of sod were stacked together, and the roots knit together to stay put. Leaky, dirty, and full of bugs, sod houses were a temporary solution for shelter. Most settlers build wooden houses as soon as they could.

Build your own sod house with this interactive from the Smithsonian

Sod House

With few trees in sight on the prairie, houses had to be built from sod, large pieces of earth. Blocks of sod were stacked together, and the roots knit together to stay put. Leaky, dirty, and full of bugs, sod houses were a temporary solution for shelter. Most settlers build wooden houses as soon as they could.

Build your own sod house with this interactive from the Smithsonian

Sod House Map

During the late 1800s, Minnesota's landscape changed in major ways. Settlers were coming to the large open prairie to bust the sod to build a homestead or prep the land for farming.

Sod House Map

During the late 1800s, Minnesota's landscape changed in major ways. Settlers were coming to the large open prairie to bust the sod to build a homestead or prep the land for farming.

Stove

Stoves are an essential item on the prairie; it heats the home and cooks hot meals for the family. Without wood on the prairie, the stove must be fed constantly with buffalo grass.

Stove

Stoves are an essential item on the prairie; it heats the home and cooks hot meals for the family. Without wood on the prairie, the stove must be fed constantly with buffalo grass.

Swedish Herb Grinder

This wooden herb grinder, made circa 1864, was brought from Halland County, Sweden, to the US in 1905 by Lars Andersson. It consists of three parts, all made of hand hewn wood: a trough (A) with a pouring lip at one end, a grinding wheel to roll through the trough, and a cylindrical handle (C) to guide the grinding wheel. The handle is wider at one end to prevent the wheel from sliding across the length of the handle.

Swedish Herb Grinder

This wooden herb grinder, made circa 1864, was brought from Halland County, Sweden, to the US in 1905 by Lars Andersson. It consists of three parts, all made of hand hewn wood: a trough (A) with a pouring lip at one end, a grinding wheel to roll through the trough, and a cylindrical handle (C) to guide the grinding wheel. The handle is wider at one end to prevent the wheel from sliding across the length of the handle.